What Is Type I and Type Ii Diabetes
DIABETES:- Also Called diabetes mellitus.
When blood contains a high amount of sugar level in it ( high blood glucose) for a long period of time, it is known as diabetes. It’s mainly a disease of the pancreas that produces hormone insulin which helps in absorption of the sugar in the cells. According to Ayurveda Madhumeh is a term used for Diabetes Mellitus It’s a silent killer. Diabetes is also known as Prameha (Passing of excess urine in quantity and frequency) and also considered as a Maharoga (Major Disease).
Diabetes mellitus considers two major forms of Diabetes Mellitus
1- Type I (IDDM)Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) or juvenile diabetes . 2- Type II (NIDDM) Non insulin- Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
WHAT IS TYPE I DIABETES.
- Type I Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which permanently destroys beta cells in the pancreas, which means that the body can no longer produce the hormone. People with Type I Diabetes, therefore, require regular diabetes controlling hormone delivery to manage their diabetes.
Type I Diabetes cause
- The cause of Type I Diabetes is different than those for Type II diabetes, though the exact mechanisms for the development of both diseases are unknown.
- According to research, type I diabetes mellitus is strongly affected by environmental factors. a study of twin babies test also supports the theory that along with the other prior factors, environmental conditions play a vital role in the evolution of the type I diabetes mellitus.
- Type I diabetes mellitus is a polygenic disease, i.e. more than one different gene contributes to its appearance. It depends on locus or a combination of loci, or the disease can be prevailing recessive, or maybe in the middle. The strongest locus,IDDM1, is located in the MHC Class II region on chromosome 6, at marked regions 6p21. This is the reason for the histocompatibility disorder characteristic of type I. Insulin-producing pancreas cell (beta cells) display unseemly antigens to T cells.
- The fundamental cause for the occurrence of type I diabetes is not yet fully identified. One theory, discussed by experts, along with the others suggests that type I diabetes is a virally activated autoimmune response in which the immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas.
SYMPTOMS OF TYPES I DIABETES MELLITUS
THE CONVENTIONAL SYMPTOMS OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS INCLUDE:
- Polyuria (frequent urination) ,
- Polydipsia (increased thirst) ,
- Increased weight reduction.
- Blood pressure fluctuation.
DIAGNOSIS OF TYPE I DIABETES
- More than half of people with type I diabetes have developed some degree of diabetic keto acidosis (a type of metabolic acidosis which is caused by a high concentration of ketone bodies,formed by the crumbling of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids) by the time the diabetes is acknowledged.
- Diabetes is often detected when a person suffers a problem that is recurrently caused by diabetes, such as neuropathy, poor healing of the wound or a foot sore, certain eye problems, certain fungal infection, or delivering a baby with hypoglycemia.
PREVENTION OF TYPES I DIABETES
- If you or someone in your family has type I diabetes, the risk is known to depend upon a genetic predilection based on HLA types, an unknown environmental trigger. Although there is no way to prevent type I diabetes, there are certain steps one can take to lower a child’s risk.
WHAT IS TYPE II DIABETES?
- Diabetes mellitus type II is also known as type II diabetes, is a globally common metabolic disorder affecting over 2 million people in the UK alone. Once called adult-onset diabetes (non- insulin -dependent diabetes mellitus) NIDDM .
- Type II diabetes is now also found in young adults and children.
HOW DOES TYPE II DIABETES OCCUR
Type II diabetes occurs when diabetes controlling hormone is not used effectively by the body, resulting in:
- Diabetes controlling hormone resistance
In advanced stages, Type II Diabetes Mellitus may leads to damage to hormone producing cells leading to the deficiency.
RISK FACTORS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
Numbers of factors can increase the risk of developing type II diabetes, which include;
- Being overweight
- Having a close family member with type II diabetes
- Having high blood pressure
- Having high cholesterol
The risk of developing Type II Diabetes also increases with age. TYPE II DIABETES AND COMPLICATIONS
- Like Type, I diabetes, Type II diabetes also carries the risk of complications in the long term. The most common complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, Retinopathy, and nerve Damage, which can lead to a risk of amputation.
The diagnosis of type II diabetes at an early stage is beneficial for a better prognosis
SYMPTOMS OF TYPE II DIABETES
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly.
- frequent urination
- increased thirst
- increased hunger
- unintended weight loss
- blurred vision
- slow-healing sores
- frequent infections
- area of darker skin, usually in the armpits and neck
DIAGNOSIS OF TYPE II DIABETES
Types II diabetes is usually diagnosed using the: GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN (A1C) TEST. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. The normal level is below 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests means you have diabetes.
Dr. Vikram Chauhan
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