CORIANDER SEEDS, HISTORY, PROPERTIES & HEALTH BENEFITS
Plants are the primary natural remedies that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of human illnesses, including infections. Seeds, leaves, and roots are edible, with distinct flavors and applications. Meanwhile, in C. sativum, they are well-known for producing biologically active compounds and have contributed to drug discovery efforts. This is a popular medicinal plant in India, with applications in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine. A recent study discovered that C. sativum and other medicinal herbs aid in the treatment of UTIs. It can be concluded that these plants can be used to discover natural products that could serve as a starting point for the development of new pharmaceuticals that address major therapeutic needs. In a recent study, CSME (C. sativum seed oil methyl esters) were prepared and tested as an alternative biodiesel fuel, and its excellent fuel properties were discovered.
Coriandrum sativum, also known as ‘cilantro’, ‘Chinese parsley’, and ‘dhania’,’ is an herb in the Apiaceae family with dried seeds used as a spice. These have been known for over 5,000 years and were discovered in Egyptian tombs. They are referred to as “the secret of happiness.” The seed was regarded as a divine gift and was incorporated into Passover drinks, and Hippocrates used it as a healing herb.
The plant is an annual that grows to be 30-100 cm tall, branched, bright green, and has an erect stem. The flowers are short-stalked and pale, mauve, or white in colour. The seeds are globular, beaked, finely ribbed, yellow-brown, and 5 mm in diameter. The maturity period is three months after planting. They are larger at the base and smaller at the top, with a distinct, pungent aroma. Every part of this herb is used, including the seeds, roots, and flowers, to flavor rice, sausages, soups, stews, pickles, and baked goods.
Coriander leaves contain high levels of vitamins C, A, K, iron, manganese, thiamine, zinc, and dietary fiber. Fresh coriander juice can help treat vitamin and iron deficiencies. The seeds contain high levels of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and zinc.
Coriander seeds‘ phytochemical constituents include approximately 1% volatile oil. The aroma of coriander comes from the alcohol d-linalol, which should be at least 60%. Other oil constituents include a-pinene, b-pinene, and a-terpinene, as well as geraniol, borneol, decyaldehyde, and acetic acid. Overall, coriander oil is the most stable oil in the group. Linalool, camphor, and limonene are all present in high concentrations in C. sativum fruits. Coriander seeds’ high linalool content demonstrates their analgesic properties. Coriander leaves contain a high concentration of carotenoids, which have a higher hydroxyl radical scavenging potential than the seeds.
Because of their aromatic flavor and distinct odor, they are primarily used to mask the unpleasant taste of medicine. The seed has both stimulating and carminative properties. Certain coriander extracts have been shown to improve glucose utilization in glucose tolerance tests. Because it contains the most essential oils, its fruits and leaves have traditionally been used to treat digestive and gastric problems, coughs, chest pains, bladder problems, fever, dysentery, headaches, and oral and pharyngeal disorders. The crushed seed can be applied externally to treat rheumatism and painful joints. The extracted oil from C. sativum leaves has potent antifungal, antiadherent, and antiproteolytic properties against Candida spp. Chemokines work synergistically with their monohydrocarbons to modulate gene expression.
C. Sativum is widely used to treat CNS disorders and has a high curing potential for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease by protecting and improving the functions of pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex. This has also been proven to be an effective antibacterial agent against B. subtilis and E. coli. Furthermore, coriander has been found to contain moderate amounts of antioxidants. Its fruits demonstrate anti-bilious, antispasmodic, diuretic, antirhematic, stimulant stomachic, and tonic properties.
PROPERTIES OF CORIANDER
C. SATIVUM AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL
With the increase in antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, the discovery of new microbes is enhancing their significance. With this, various sources of poisonous secretion in animals, such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, and insects, have been discovered with diverse effects. Herbal plants have a special place in traditional medicine . So antimicrobial herbal compounds are one of the most valuable medical resources. Isolation of effective antimicrobial components has been made from various plants, showing a significant impact on a variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
Through the radial diffusion assay (RDA), the antimicrobial effects were investigated. The gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and two species of gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were tested.
The antifungal activity of the plant extract was tested on Penicillium lilacinum and Aspergillus niger in PDA.
The results showed that the plant extract obtained from coriander seeds has an inhibitory effect on the three bacteria studied. So coriander seeds are also biologically effective in terms of antibacterial and antifungal activity. Also, they indicate the therapeutic properties of plants against disease pathogenesis. Corriander essential oil also has antibacterial properties against the E. coli strain.
Mode of action against fungal cells
Fungi exhibit greater sensitivity than gram-negative bacteria. In general, herbal products cause cytoplasmic granulation, membrane rupture, deactivation of intracellular and intercellular enzyme activity, cell wall disruption, and cytoplasmic ETC system destruction. This is the mechanism underlying coriander seed extract’s antifungal activity.
- Antioxidant Activity
Leaf and seed extracts of coriander and coriander oil were tested for their antioxidant activity with the help of various bioassay techniques. Coriander leaves show stronger antioxidant activity than the seeds. It is also suggested that the addition of coriander to food would increase the antioxidant content and inhibit unwanted oxidation processes.
The biochemical effects of coriander seeds (10% powdered seeds added to the diet) on tissue lipid parameters in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats were studied.The study also shows that the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio decreased. Thus, coriander plays a protective role against the deleterious effects on lipid metabolism.
- Hypoglycemic Activity
Coriander has been documented as a traditional treatment for diabetes. This lowers blood sugar when added to the diet. The antihyperglycemic action of coriander is associated with stimulation of insulin secretion and enhances metabolism and glucose uptake by muscle. As a result, coriander may be a useful antihyperglycemic dietary supplement as well as a source of orally active agents for diabetes treatment. Thus, coriander incorporated into the diet and drinking water reduces the hyperglycemia of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. These findings show that coriander contains anti-hyperglycemic, insulin-releasing, and insulin-like properties.
Coriander juice’s antimutagenic activity against the mutagenic activity of phenylenediamine and aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenecity assay, with the S. typhirium strain serving as an indicator. The concentration of chlorophyll in vegetable juice was measured, and it was found to be positively correlated with the antimutagenic effect. Coriander juice’s concentration is neither toxic nor mutagenic.
- Inflammations – one of the components of essential oils is cineole, and the linoleic acid present in coriander possesses antirhematic and antiarthritic properties. Anemia and kidney disease-related swelling are treatable conditions. It can eliminate excess water from the body.
- Digestive Health And Diarrhoea Control – The rich aroma of coriander essential oil aids in the proper secretion of enzymes and digestive juices in the stomach, stimulating digestion and peristaltic motion. Linalool and borneol help the liver function properly, and bowel bonding aids in the treatment of microbial and fungal-caused diarrhoea. Cineole, borneol, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-phellandrene are examples of antibacterial compounds. Fresh coriander leaves are great appetisers.
- Citronellol – It is an essential oil component, works well as an antiseptic for mouth ulcers. Other components have antimicrobial and healing properties that do not leave wounds or ulcers in the mouth and freshen the breath. Coriander contains a lot of iron and can help you get rid of anemia.
- Eye Care – Coriander essential oil contains many antioxidants, vitamins A and C, and minerals such as phosphorus, which help to prevent eye aging and soothe the eye during times of stress. It is an effective disinfectant with antimicrobial properties that protect the eyes from diseases like conjunctivitis.
- Skin Disorders – Skin disorders such as eczema, dryness, and fungal infections can be treated with coriander leaves. It is believed to be a natural aphrodisiac. The anti-ageing effect of coriander is also very high. Coriander oil has the highest inhibition effect. The enzymes responsible for the activity of skin ageing are the elastase enzyme, collagenase, tyrosinase, and hyaluronidase enzyme.
Aromatic plants in the Apiaceae family produce both vegetative and reproductive organs. Essential oils and their constituents have been used in traditional medicine and aromatherapy as ingredients in popular cosmetics and pharmaceuticals with anti-aging properties. Various antimicrobial and antibacterial products have been manufactured in industries. Coriander is widely available and can be grown in small yards for everyday use in food and pharmaceuticals. Coriander’s volatile oil contains beneficial phytonutrients, and the seeds have a health-promoting reputation, ranking high on the list of healing spices and having been used as an antispasmodic, carminative, fungicidal, and stomachic agent. Given these potentials, coriander has a bright future in the health sciences industry. And, in general, this is a widely grown spice in India; according to Ayurveda, the majority of spices are used medicinally. Coriander is used in Ayurvedic medicine as oshadhi and in churnas to improve digestion.
Latest posts by Dr. Vikram Chauhan (see all)
- AYURVEDIC HERBS FOR NURTURING LIVER - February 9, 2024
- WHAT ARE FENNEL SEEDS? HEALTH BENEFITS - February 9, 2024
- BLACK PEPPER IN AYURVEDA, HISTORY, FORMATION AND EFFECT ON HEALTH - February 7, 2024
- CORIANDER SEEDS, HISTORY, PROPERTIES & HEALTH BENEFITS - February 2, 2024
- CUMIN DEFINITION, VARIETIES, TRADITIONAL USES & ITS EFFECTS ON HEALTH - February 1, 2024